Second Edition: Barbara Bari and Megan Trachok (2012)
First Edition: Sarah Sparks and Mindy Whalen (2011) (Click on author names to view original page).

Home Sweet (?) Home .........


=Did you know........[1]
  • That over 1.35 million children experience homelessness each year? (And in Indiana over 29,000 children experience homelessness each year).
  • That families without permanent residences move an average of 12 times per year?
  • That domestic violence attacks an estimated 63% of homeless families.
  • About 1,500 children (under 18) spent at least one night on the streets last year.
  • 25% of Indy's homeless are children.
  • The average homeless family is a single mother with two children under age 10 who are without a home due to financial difficulties or domestic violence.
  • The average age of the homeless child in Indianapolis is 7 years.

Definitions of Homelessness:

1. United States Department of Education

The U.S. Department of Education identifies people living in the following situations to be considered as


    • Doubled up with family or friends due to economic conditions
    • Living in motels and hotels for lack of other suitable housing
    • Runaway and "Throwaway" children and youth
    • Homes for unwed or expectant mothers for lack of a place to live
    • Homeless and domestic violence shelters
    • Transitional housing programs
    • The streets
    • Abandoned buildings
    • Public places not meant for housing
    • Cars, trailers, and campgrounds
    • Awaiting fostercare
    • Migratory children staying in housing not fit for habitation[2]
2. United States Department of Housing and Urban Development According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, homelessness is:http://www.nurkowaniehurghada.pl
A. An individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence.
ORB. An individual whose primary nighttime residence is (1) A supervised shelter designed to providetemporary living accommodations (including welfare hotels, congregate shelters, and transitionalhousing for the mentally ill); OR (2) An institution that provides a temporary residence for individualsintended to be institutionalized; OR (3) public or private construct not designed for, or ordinarilyused as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings.

=Potential Causes of Homelessness in Youth[3]
Many homeless youth leave home after experiencing physical or sexual abuse, strained family relationships, addiction of a family member, or parental neglect. Disruptive family conditions are the primary reason that youth leave home. According to a study by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1995), more than half of the youth interviewed during stays at a shelter reported that their parents told them to leave or knew they were leaving and did not care. In another study by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1997) 46% of runaway and homeless youth had been physically abused and 17% were sexually abused by a family or household member.

Other youth sometimes become homeless because their families suffer financial crises resulting from lack of affordable housing, limited employment opportunities, insufficient wages, lack of medical insurance, or inadequate welfare benefits. Youth may become separated from their families by shelter, transitional housing, or child welfare policies. Residential instability also contributes to youth homelessness. A history of foster care is associated with becoming homeless at an earlier age and remaining homeless for a longer period of time.

=Effects of Homelessness on Children:[4]
1. Physical Health
  • High risk for infectious disease
  • Greater risk for asthma and lead poisoning with more severe symptoms than housed children
  • Poor nutrition often leads to stunted growth and anemia
  • Lack of access to consistent healthcare
2. Emotional and Behavioral Development
  • Stress through constant changes, which accumulate over time
  • Higher incidence of mental disorders
  • Less than 1/3 of homeless children receive professional help
3. Academic Development
  • More likely to score poorly on math, reading, spelling, and vocabulary tests
  • More likely to be retained in school
  • Greater needs often do not lead to greater access to special services

Violence and Crime Against Homeless:

Hate Crimes and Violence Fact Sheet
"Violence Hidden in Plain View"
Resources for Indiana[5]
  • Help Hotlines

  • Shelter

  • Homeless Service Groups

  • Homeless Veterans

  • Other Resources

عروض بنده , عروض العثيم , عروض كارفور , عروض الدانوب , عروض جرير , عروض اكسترا

=Frequent Indicators of Homelessness[6] [7]
  • "Our address is new; I can't remember it."
  • "I'm not sure what the address is of this place we're staying."
  • "I don't know where we live."
  • Mobility Indicators:

    • Lack of school records
    • Hesitancy about what address to use
    • Confusion about proof of residency in the school district
    • Frequent absences/tardies
    • Inability or difficulty in contacting parents
  • Poverty Indicators:

    • No school supplies
    • Wearing the same clothes to school on consecutive days
    • Poor hygiene
    • Unattended medical needs
    • Concern for safety of belongings
    • Inappropriate clothing based on weather
  • Social Behavior Indicators

    • Poor self-esteem
    • Difficulty or avoidance in making friends
    • "Old" beyond years
    • Difficulty trusting people
    • Fear of abandonment
    • Concern for safety
    • Protective of parents
    • Anxiety late in the school day



  • Addicted to drugs
  • Addicted to alcohol [8]
  • Criminals
  • Lazy
  • Poor youth it is often believed they deserved to get kicked out
  • Poor choices led to homelessness [9]

Difficulties Homeless Children and Families Face:

  • Worry about what they will eat
  • Worry about where they will sleep
  • Hard to focus on school
  • Dealing with mature issues at young ages
  • Violence against them

=Homeless Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Youth[10]
  • 20% of homeless youth are LGBT. In comparison, the general youth population is only 10% LGBT.
  • While homeless youth typically experience severe family conflict as the primary reason for their homelessness, LGBT youth are twice as likely to experience sexual abuse before the age of 12.
  • LGBT youth, once homeless, are at higher risk for victimization, mental health problems, and unsafe sexual practices. 58.7% of LGBT homeless youth have been sexually victimized compared to 33.4% of heterosexual homeless youth
  • LGBT youth are roughly 7.4 times more likely to experience acts of sexual violence than heterosexual homeless youth
  • LGBT homeless youth commit suicide at higher rates (62%) than heterosexual homeless youth (29%)
Additional Facts: LGBT Homeless Youth Fact Sheet
There are resources and places to turn for homeless LGBT students. For example, homeless LGBT students in Indiana can seek out the Indiana Youth Group.

McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (Updated 3/14/2012 by the IDOE)

McKinney-Vento: A Key to Success 2003-2004

Homeless Children and Youth Act of 2011

Rights for Homeless students:

  • Homeless students may attend their school of origin or the school where they are temporarily residing.
  • Homeless students must be provided a written statement of their rights when they enroll and at least two times per year.
  • Homeless students may enroll without school, medical, or similar records.
  • Homeless students have a right to transportation to school.
  • Students must be provided a statement explaining why they are denied any service or enrollment.
  • Students must receive services, such as transportation, while disputes are being settled.
  • Students are automatically eligible for Title I services.
  • School districts must reserve a portion of Title IA funds to serve homeless students.
  • School districts must review and revise policies that provide barriers to homeless students.
  • Schools must post information in the community regarding the rights of homeless students, in schools and other places that homeless families may frequent.
  • School districts must identify a McKinney-Vento Liaison to assist students. [11]

Guidelines for Implementing:

Budget Breakdown
Grant Application
Recorded WebEx
McKinney-Vento Liason
NCHE Online Training
McKinney-Vento Internet Resources
McKinney-Vento School Lisason Directory

Student Perceptions of Homelessness

Students who are homeless often seek out caring relationships in their school peers and teachers. They fear what other students will think of them if they find out they are homeless. School is the only constant in the lives of many children who are homeless. Therefore, it is important for the school environment to be accepting of children and provide the stability they do not receive in other settings.[12]

homeless3.jpgTeacher Perceptions of Homeless Children

Teacher perceptions of homeless children and their families have a significant influence on children and parents. These perceptions are typically negative. Research has shown that homeless children observe caring people as having a positive impact on themselves as well as their families. It is imperative that teachers are understanding, caring, and responsive to supporting and engaging homeless families in positive experiences. [13]

How Teachers Can Create Positive Growth Experiences for Homeless Children and Families

  1. Reflecting on one’s attitudes and perspectives relating to homeless children and families.
  2. Reviewing how curriculum and related learning experiences are meeting the needs of homeless children and families.
  3. Assessing what needs the child and family are experiencing and plan how they can be met effectively.

Educator Strategies

  • Developing an awareness of the challenges and situations experienced by homeless children and families
  • Become engaged in service-learning roles with shelters and other groups that serve our children and families
  • Mentoring and tutoring (also tier 2 and 3)
  • Using liaison roles to weave together more supportive school and community settings
  • Use of action research projects that explore the needs and possible solutions to the issues being experienced by homeless students and their families
  • use of teacher journals that focus on capturing the patterns of child functioning and accompanying teacher responses
  • the use of community ‘‘experts’’ on various issues connected to homelessness
  • A case study approach to understanding homeless children and families offers a system for acquiring comprehensive insight into various dimensions of the problem.

School Strategies

1. Provide workshops for teachers and staff members to inform and address the unique needs of homeless students.
  • Educate staff about special needs of homeless students.
  • Work with parents and guardians to ensure that they know their educational rights.
  • Stress that homeless students' privacy and emotional health should be protected.
2. Develop a clear attendance policy.
  • Homeless students should not be penalized for being late because they may have to accommodate complicated bus schedules with several transfers to get to school.
  • Keep close track of student attendance and follow-up immediately when students are absent.
3. Bridge the gap between schools if a child moves.
  • Learn which school the child is moving to and contact appropriate staff at the new school to facilitate a transfer of records and background information to help with the transition.
  • Maintaining contact with also indicate a special relationship and add stability to his or her life.
4. Ensure that a full range of services is available.
  • Provide access to tutoring, special education, and English language learner resources as needed.
  • Homeless students should be made aware that they can participate in field trips and school wide activities even if they cannot pay for them.
  • District's homeless student liaison should provide a list of community resources including: shelters, housing information programs, and food banks to meet the basic needs on homeless students.
5. Keep in contact with parents or guardians.
  • Important to encourage their participation.
  • Consistent contact helps homeless students and their parents feel more connected to school, which is associated with increased attendance and higher academic achievement.
6. Keep in contact with the district liaison.

Tier 2

Volunteers of America after school program
Empowerment Zone Project (EZ)[14]

Schools are good settings for facilitating mental health and health prevention services to students in small groups. Children living in poverty, especially homeless children, are exposed to an increased amount of risk factors for developing mental health problems. Prevention programs such as the EZ project can be helpful in building resilience to the additional stressors children who are homeless face. This project can be teacher ran and include some aspects of programming that allows for parent collaboration. [15]

Tier 3

Academic Intervention

Some research has found that their is not a significant amount of difference in the rate of achievement when comparing students who are homeless and their peers who are not. Homeless students move more frequently and have to find different schools, however, once they are attending a school, absences are minimal. Although there are not significant achievement differences, it is still important to remember students who are homeless might need some additional one-on-one tutoring. [16]

Mental Health

  • Access to mental health services
  • Intensive services need to be available when needed
  • Additional stressors could lead to the need for these services more frequently

Substance Abuse/Violence

  • Students who deal with substance abuse issues need resources to intensive intervention/therapy
  • Students need counseling available when problems arise as a result of abusive situations

Helpful Websites:

Helpful Hotlines:

  • Covenant House Nineline, 800-999-9999, www.covenanthouse.org
  • National Network for Youth, 202-783-7949, www.NN4Youth.orgNational Runaway Switchboard, 800-621-4000, www.nrscrisisline.org"

    Home is a sanctuary for me and the place where I can relax. Everyone should have the right to a safe and secure home."-- Corinne Bailey Rae

How to encourage others to help--

(These suggestions were found on e-how.com).
      1. Make a Care Package

        1. Ask local businesses to donate.
        2. Pack the care items in a backpack--this is a reusable item that is useful to have when living on the street.
        3. Select small non-perishable food items. Individual fruit cups, packages of crackers, nuts, dried fruit and meat sticks are a good choice. Select foods that do not require a can opener or a refrigerator.
        4. Buy items such as toothbrushes, toothpaste, socks, flashlights, hats and gloves. Anything you can think of that is small enough to put in the backpack and would help someone living on the street to stay warm will do. Depending on your budget shop at thrift stores, dollar stores or buy in bulk.
        5. Pack these items into the backpack, but be sure to leave extra space so that the individual will have room to add personal items of his own.
        6. Include a card with phone numbers and addresses to missions, shelters and soup kitchens in the area.Read more: How to Make a Care Package for the Homeless | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_2066597_make-care-package-homeless.html#ixzz1qRnIgY1v
      2. Start a Homeless Support Group

        1. Determine the type of group you would like to start. Decide if this will be a self-help group in which the members run the group and facilitate meetings themselves or if you will have a counselor who will take charge of the group. For groups that are self-run or member-run, the members should discuss how this will be done and educate themselves on how to best run a self-help group.
        2. There are a variety of mental and behavioral health professionals who are qualified to run groups. These include professional counselors, who bring experience in group facilitation, and professional therapists, such as social workers and marriage and family therapists. These types of facilitators are good for therapeutic groups, but will likely cost money to hire.
        3. Consider what population this group will be open to--Your group may focus on youth, victims of domestic violence, or military veterans, or it may be open to all types of people who are homeless. Find out if there is already a group that serves this population in your area, or if there is a specific group that is in need of support.
        4. Find a place to meet. Ask for space from local community service organizations, such as churches, libraries, schools or community centers. Using a homeless shelter or food pantry is ideal since people in need of the service can be easily contacted and will not have to worry about traveling to join the support group. Make sure the meeting place is suitable for your group; for instance, that it has enough chairs and that members can sit in a large circle. A church with pews, for instance, may not be ideal, since group members cannot see each others' faces when talking.
        5. Create a budget for your group and decide how you will fund it. If you are able to get donated meeting space, you may be able to keep your costs low. For a self-run group, consider taking up a collection in order to fund advertising costs or to pay for speakers.
        6. Advertise and recruit members. Use community resources to let others know about the group. Use the announcements sections in community calendars at local libraries or in local newspapers.
        7. Talk to homeless shelters and social service organizations in your area whose members might be interested. For instance, if you are designing a group for victims of domestic violence, contact the local domestic violence hotline. Ask them if they can use your group as a resource for survivors of domestic violence who are homeless
        8. Read more: How to Start Homeless Support Groups | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_7828391_start-homeless-support-groups.html#ixzz1qRp73llr
      3. Donate Clothes in the Bloomington, Indiana Area

          1. Wash or dryclean all clothing before donating it.
          2. Do not donate items that have been banned, recalled, or do not meet safety standards (ie-fire retardant, etc.).
        1. Goodwill.org
        2. www.charitynavigator.org
        3. The Salvation Army
        4. My Sister's Closet
        5. Donate Clothing Indiana
        6. Sweet Repeats Compassionate Shopping
      4. Elementary School Service Projects

          1. These are great projects to teach children the importance of being involved both in the community and in helping others in need, and to increase social awareness and empathy.
        1. School Gardens

          • Learning how to have a positive impact upon the environment is a valuable lesson for elementary students to learn. By cultivating gardens, students have an opportunity to learn about responsibility by preparing the soil, growing the plants and harvesting the crops, according to the Green Schools Initiative website (see References). Once the garden is complete, the produce can be donated to the PTA as a fundraiser for the school for art supplies, or other learning materials.
        2. Children's Hospital

          • Working on a service project that benefits children who are recovering from illness in a children's hospital presents a rewarding opportunity for young students. There are a few fun projects elementary students can undertake, like collecting small packs of crayons and colored markers. Students can decorate posters and personalize them with well-wishes from each class involved in the service project. Since children are always skinning their knees or arms, donating Band-Aids with favorite cartoon or comic book characters would be fun to take part in and would lift the spirits of the hospitalized children
        3. Homeless Shelter Donation

          • Children can develop empathy for homeless children and their families who live in an area homeless shelter by working on a service project to help out. Elementary students can provide a benefit for shelter-bound children by donating books and brown-bag lunches that their teacher can assist them with. With parental permission, each child could bring in a book from home, and a bag of chips, cookies or some other food item. The teacher can assist in assembling the donated packages. The service project could even include a speaker from the shelter, explaining how much the donation will mean to the children and families.
        4. إسلام , islam , قرآن , علماء , مشايخ , برامج
      5. Read more: Elementary School Service Projects | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/info_7886686_elementary-school-service-projects.html#ixzz1qRs
      6. Covantent Project NYC http://www.coalitionforthehomeless.org/pages/state-of-the-homeless-2013
      7. Backstreet Mission (Bloomington) http://www.backstreet.org/Programs.htm
      8. Shalom Community Center (Bloomington) http://shalomcommunitycenter.org
      9. MCCSC http://www.mccsc.net
      10. IPShttp://www.ips.k12.in.us
      11. عروض بنده , عروض العثيم , عروض التميمي , عروض الدانوب

      12. علاج الكلف تشمع الكبد
        حصى المرارة رجل حامل
        علاج القشرة مرض الجذام
        تغذية الطفل الرضيع
        علاج الحساسية
        فحص ما قبل الزواج

  1. ^


  2. ^ Ed.gov.(2011).http://www2.ed.gov/programs/titleiparta/homelessscript.pdf.
  3. ^


  4. ^


    Hart-Shegos, E. (1999). Homelessness and its effects on children. Family Housing Fund. 1-14.
  5. ^

    U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.(2011).http://www.hud.gov/local/index.cfm?state=in&topic=homeless.
  6. ^


  7. ^ Madison Metropolitan School District
    National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) at SERVE and Project HOPE, The College of William and Mary, School of Education, Virginia.
  8. ^ Change.org.(2008).http://news.change.org/stories/5-things-you-should-know-about-homelessness.
  9. ^ Squidoo.(2011).Homelessness Myths, Misconceptions, and Stereotypes.http://www.squidoo.com/homelessness-myths-misconceptions.
  10. ^


  11. ^ IN.gove.(2011).http://www.doe.in.gov/alted/homelesslinkpg.html.
  12. ^

    DeForge, V., Zehnder, S., Minick, P., & Carmon, M. (2001). Children’s Perceptions of Homeless.Pediatric Nursing.
  13. ^

    Costello, E.,P., & Swick, K., J. (2008). Exploring the Dynamics of Teacher perceptions of Homeless Children and Families during the Early Years. Journal of Early Childhood Education, 36: 241-245.
  14. ^

    Nabors, L., Proescher, E., & Mochiko, D. (2001).School-based mental health prevention activities for homeless and at-risk youth.Child and Youth Care Forum, 30:3-16.
  15. ^

    Nabors, L., Proescher, E., & Mochiko, D. (2001).School-based mental health prevention activities for homeless and at-risk youth.Child and Youth Care Forum, 30:3-16.
  16. ^

    Buckner, J., Bassuk, E., & Weinreb, L.(2001).Predictors of academic achievement among homeless and low-income housed children. Journal of School Psychology; 50, 1: 45-69.