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Second Edition: Stacey Fagin and Gabrielle Dominguez
First Edition: Natasha Williams and Courtney Lemons



Sexual orientation is defined by a person’s emotional and physical attraction to other people (of their own sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes).[1] LGBTQ refers to students that are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning, but support in this area isn't limited only to those students. Supports can also be for students that are questioning or unsure of their sexual orientation. Approximately 5%–10% of the overall youth population are LGBTQ[2] .Less is known about the percentage of asexual youth in schools, but they are still recognized under the LGBTQ umbrella.

Lesbian: A woman who is emotionally, romantically and sexually attracted to other women.
Gay: A man or woman who is emotionally, romantically and sexually attracted to the same gender; some use the term only to identify gay men. The word gay is preferred over the word homosexual, which has clinical overtones that some people find offensive.
Bisexual: A man or woman who is emotionally, romantically and sexually attracted to both genders. Sometimes the attraction to each gender is equal, while for others there may be a preference for one gender over the other.
Transgender: An umbrella term used to describe a person whose self-image as male or female differs from the norms traditionally associated with their anatomical sex at birth. The term is also used to describe a gender nonconforming person — one whose behaviors, mannerisms or clothing are perceived by others as inappropriate for their birth sex based on societal beliefs or standards. Transgender people may identify as heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual or questioning.
Transexual: A person whose true sex does not match their original biological sex. 1. 2. 3.
Questioning: A person, often an adolescent, who has questions about his or her sexual orientation or gender identity. Some questioning people eventually come out as LGBT; some don’t.
Asexual: Someone who does not experience sexual attraction. 1. 2.


NASP, along with the National Education Association, the American Federation of Teachers, the National Association of Social Workers,the American Counseling Association and the National School Boards Association, agree that schools need to respect and appreciate diversity in their student population, including the presence of LGBTQ students. Safe and healthy school environments free from verbal and physical harassment and violence must be provided to all students, including LGBTQ youth. Strong support systems must be in place and must be easily accessible to youth in trouble before, not after, an incident occurs.[3]

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In order to improve conditions in their schools for LGBTQ youth, the following steps are recommended by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN):
  • School systems should establish written policies that specifically protect students and staff from discrimination and harassment based on real or perceived sexual orientation.
  • School systems should provide in-service training opportunities on issues affecting LGBTQ youth.
  • School systems should support a curriculum that includes accurate information about LGBTQ people across different subject areas.
  • School systems should also allow and support the formation of Gay/Straight Alliances or other student activities with the goal of addressing homophobia and heterosexism in the school setting.
Programs can be started early by providing students lessons on being respectful and accepting of individual differences. It's important to start early because early exposure to these concepts can help shapes students educational experiences.
  • The most common form of biased language in elementary schools, heard regularly (i.e., sometimes, often or all the time) by both students and teachers, is the use of the word "gay" in a negative way, such as "that's so gay," (students: 45%, teachers: 49%).
  • Gender nonconforming students are less likely than other students to feel very safe at school (42% vs 61%), and are more likely than others to be called names, made fun of or bullied at school (56% vs 33%).
  • While an overwhelming majority of elementary school teachers say that they include representations of different families when the topic of families comes up in their classrooms (89%), less than a quarter of teachers report any representation of lesbian, gay or bisexual parents (21%) or transgender parents (8%).
  • A majority of teachers (85%) have received professional development on diversity or multicultural issues, but less than half of teachers have ever received specific professional development on gender issues(37%) or on families with LGBT parents (23%).
Most students have not started to explore the area of sexual orientation at this level so it is important to focus more on prepping all students for the individual differences that will arise throughout the years of school, as opposed to putting programs in place to support LGBTQ students.

There are many programs that target elementary age students in teaching about respect and differences. GLSEN provides a set curriculum called Ready, Set, Respect! This program touches on three core areas name-calling, bullying and bias, family diversity, and gender roles and diversity. Within these sets there are four lessons that target skills within those domains. This curriculum also aligns with the common core state standards for English/Language Arts. Most elementary curricula focus on teaching children to treat people that way you want to be treated.

It's important to emphasize the impact words can have on others. While students might be joking or repeating something they have heard on TV or in movies, it is important to stress to them that saying things like "That's gay" is hurtful to some individuals.

Early intervention is also a good time to provide positive role models to children on approach actions and words. One way is to show them role models that also make an effort to not use hurtful terms. Another way is by being a positive role model yourself. This means not using those terms, laughing when others use those terms, or allowing all of those terms to be used in your classroom with out punishment.

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Middle school is a time to switch from focusing just on prevention and start targeting some problem solving strategies. This is when students will start to question and become curious about their sexual orientation. Because of these changes in perspective, it is important to start working early with students to address bullying, language and how everyone is different.

Middle school programs should continue to stress how words can be hurtful. At this point it is very important to provide the students with strong role models and model appropriate language and actions. Along with providing good models of appropriate language, it's important to help students see that everyone has individual differences.

Middle school programs stress encouraging students to not just stand by when other students are being bullied or made fun of. [6] They also suggest that having students reflect on things that have hurt them in the past or things that they have been made fun of for. By having students reflect on these experiences, they are able to better understand how their classmates feel when they are picked on.

This is also an important to provide students with some "safe spots" that they can come to if they feel that they are being bullied or struggling with decisions. While most students still haven't started to identify strongly with the LGBTQ orientation in middle school, they might be starting to question or notice that they have different feelings than their same gender peers. It is important to provide these students with a place that they feel they can come to to feel safe and not be judged.



**Bullying has reached epidemic proportions in American schools and communities[7] .
  • Sixty-six percent of youth are teased at least once a month, and nearly one-third of youth are bullied at least once a month.
  • Six out of 10 American teens witness bullying at least once a day.
  • For children in grades 6 – 10, nearly one in six — or 3.2 million — are victims of bullying each year and 3.7 million are bullies.
Bullying is linked to prejudice and ignorance.
  • Over the course of a year, nearly one-fourth of students across grades reported that they had been harassed or bullied on school property because of their race, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation or disability.
  • Nearly one-third of middle school students have been the object of sexual jokes, comments or gestures. Another 15 percent have been bullied or harassed because of their religion or race.
  • For every gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender student who reported being harassed, four straight students said they were harassed for being perceived as gay or lesbian.
Bullying has serious physical and mental health consequences for youth.
  • An estimated 160,000 children miss school every day out of fear of attack or intimidation by other students.
  • One out of every 10 students who drops out of school does so because of repeated bullying.
  • Victims of bullying are more likely to suffer physical problems such as common colds and coughs, sore throats, poor appetite and night waking.9
  • Those who are bullied are five times more likely to be depressed and far more likely to be suicidal.
  • The effects of bullying can be long-lasting. By age 23, children who were bullied in middle school were more depressed and had lower self-esteem than their peers who had not been bullied.
LGBTQ students are significantly more likely than other students to[8] :
  • Have been bullied (42% LGBTQ students v. 21% other students) or threatened or injured with a weapon at school (22% v. 5%), and to have skipped school because they felt unsafe (15% v. 4%);
  • Report a suicide attempt (32% v. 7% of other students);
  • Report current alcohol use (60% v. 45%) and binge drinking (44% v. 26%);
  • Report having been diagnosed with HIV or another STD (16% v. 7%).
  • 28% of lesbian, gay and bisexual youth drop out of school because of verbal or physical harassment by other students.
  • 78% of youth report that young people who are gay or thought to be gay are teased or bullied in their schools and communities; 93% hear other youth at school or in their neighborhood use slurs like fag, homo, dyke, queer or gay at least once in a while, with 51% reported hearing them every day.
High school is the time that most students start to encounter issues with their differing sexuality. Supports and safe spaces are VERY important during this time. It is important to provide students with a safe space to come to when they feel that are being bullied or picked on. Research show that for an overwhelming majority of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBTQ) students, schools are not a safe place to learn and grow.
  • Nearly two-thirds report feeling unsafe in school because of their sexual orientation, and nearly 40% felt unsafe because of their gender expression.
  • 85% of LGBTQ students report being verbally harassed, 40% report being physically harassed because of their sexual orientation.
  • 64% of LGBTQ students report being verbally harassed, nearly 30% report being physically harassed because of their gender expression.
Anti-LGBTQ bullying leads to absenteeism, lower grades, reduced self-esteem and, in too many cases, depression and suicide. Students who were more frequently harassed because of their sexual orientation or gender expression reported a grade point average almost a half grade lower than for students who were less often harassed (2.7 vs. 3.1)[9]

Another issue that LGBTQ students face is conflicts with parents, relatives, friends, and support system. Students that come out might face losing friendships with individuals who don't agree with their choice. Others might face rejection from parents and family that disapprove of their decisions. Some students even face being kicked out of their own homes. (For students that have been forced to leave their home, we recommend that you also consult the wiki page created by our colleagues Homelessness Page.) Below you will also find some statistics about the prevalence of homelessness with in the LGBTQ population:

  • According to a 2006 report, between 20 and 40 percent of homeless youth in the US identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender.
  • 26% of LGBTQ youth who come out to their parents are told to leave home. Many also report experiencing abuse both from family members and in shelters. [10]
  • 65% of 400 homeless LGBTQ youth report having been in a child welfare placement at some point in the past. [11]
  • 26% of gay youth are forced to leave home because of conflicts with their families over their sexual identities.[12]
  • Up to half of the gay or bisexual men forced from their homes engage in prostitution to support themselves, greatly increasing their risk for HIV infection. [13]
  • Half of a sampling of gay and lesbian young people in out-of-home care reported having been homeless at some point in the past. [14]
Suicide prevention is also something that is important to address with the LGBTQ population. Should you ever find your school dealing with a crisis, we recommend that you consult the wiki page created by our colleagues Crisis Response Page. Below are some frightening statistics about suicide in the LGBTQ populations:

  • 36.5 % of LGBTQ youth grades 9-12 have attempted suicide. 20.5% of those attempts resulting in medical care. [15]
  • Gay and lesbian youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexual young people. [16]
  • As many as 1 in 3 gay and lesbian youth have attempted suicide. [17]
  • In a 1998 health survey conducted by Youth Pride, Inc. aimed at LGBTQ youth, 58% of respondents reported that they had felt suicidal as teenagers.
  • According to a 1999 study reported using data collected among Massachusetts high school students in 1995, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning high school students were more than three (3.41) times more likely to report having attempted suicide than their straight peers. [18]
  • A 2002 survey found that 21% of men who have sex with men had made plans to attempt suicide; 12% reported actually having made the attempt, and of those, nearly half had made multiple attempts. Most who attempted suicide had made their first attempt before age 25.[19]



There are a lot of prevention programs to help support students that are LGBTQ and are thinking about committing suicide. One support available is The Trevor Project Hotline which is a suicide prevention hotline for LGBTQ students. [20]

The Trevor Project offers life-saving, life-affirming programs and services to LGBTQ youth that create safe, accepting and inclusive environments over the phone, online and through text.

Trevor Lifeline - The only national 24/7 crisis intervention and suicide prevention lifeline for LGBTQ young people (ages 13-24), available at 1-866-488-7386.

TrevorChat - A free, confidential, secure instant messaging service that provides live help to LGBTQ young people (ages 13-24).

TrevorText - A free, confidential, secure service in which LGBTQ young people can text a trained Trevor counselor for support and crisis intervention.

Ask Trevor - An online, non-time sensitive question and answer resource for young people with questions about sexual orientation, gender identity, and other LGBTQ issues.

TrevorSpace - A social networking community for LGBTQ youth ages 13 through 24 and their friends and allies.

Trevor Education - A suite of age-appropriate LGBTQ suicide prevention education workshops, trainings and resources for youth, adults and educators, including the Trevor Lifeguard Workshop, an SPRC/AFSP Best Practice for Suicide Prevention.

Trevor Resource Kit - Trevor Resource Kits provide tools and activities to supplement suicide prevention education in youth group or classroom settings.

If you are thinking about suicide, you deserve immediate support. Please call The Trevor Lifeline at 1-866-488-7386.


The It Gets Better Project™ was created to show young LGBTQ people the levels of happiness, potential, and positivity their lives will reach – if they can just get through their teen years. The It Gets Better Project wants to remind teenagers in the LGBTQ community that they are not alone — and it WILL get better.

The It Gets Better Project™ has become a worldwide movement, inspiring more than 40,000 user-created videos viewed more than 40 million times. To date, the project has received submissions from celebrities, organizations, activists, politicians and media personalities, including President Barack Obama, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Rep. Nancy Pelosi, Adam Lambert, Anne Hathaway, Colin Farrell, Matthew Morrison of "Glee", Joe Jonas, Joel Madden, Ke$ha, Sarah Silverman, Tim Gunn, Ellen DeGeneres, Suze Orman, the staffs of The Gap, Google, Facebook, Pixar, the Broadway community, and many more. For us, every video changes a life. It doesn’t matter who makes it.[21]


ACLU’s Note to Students:

“The American Civil Liberties Union offers free information and assistance to students who are experiencing anti-gay discrimination in their schools or want to know what their rights are under the law. Any communication between you and the ACLU is private and confidential, and we'll never do anything without your approval. We won't ever contact your school or parents or anyone else, or do anything unless it's okay with you.”

Having a GSA in school was related to more positive experiences for LGBTQ students, including: hearing fewer homophobic remarks, less victimization because of sexual orientation and gender expression, less absenteeism because of safety concerns and a greater sense of belonging to the school community. The presence of supportive staff contributed to a range of positive indicators including fewer reports of missing school, fewer reports of feeling unsafe, greater academic achievement, higher educational aspirations and a greater sense of school belonging. Despite the positive benefits of these interventions, less than a half of LGBTQ students (44.6%) reported having a Gay-Straight Alliance at school, slightly more than half (53.4%) could identify six or more supportive educators and less than a fifth (18.2%) attended a school that had a comprehensive anti-bullying policy.

A GSA is a student-led and organized club that aims to create a safe, welcoming and accepting environment of all youth, regardless of sexual orientation.It is referred to as a GSA because It exemplifies the purpose of the club: to build bridges among students of all sexual orientation, whether they identify as gay, straight, lesbian, bisexual, transgender ... or anything else!

  • Gay-Straight Alliance Network is a youth leadership organization that connects school-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) to each other and community resources through peer support, leadership development, and training.
  • GSA Network supports young people in starting, strengthening, and sustaining GSAs and builds the capacity of GSAs to:
  • create safe environments in schools for students to support each other and learn about homophobia and other oppressions,
  • educate the school community about homophobia, gender identity, and sexual orientation issues, and
  • fight discrimination, harassment, and violence in schools.
  • Mocking of club members
  • E-mails from parents
  • Pressure for staff to participate in LGBTQ acceptance activities even though they didn’t feel they supported club


NEA’s resolutions have longstanding language that supports equality and diversity, deplores discrimination and stereotyping and explicitly speaks to issues affecting gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered students and education employees.

The California Safe Schools Coalition has come up with some recommendations for teachers, administrators, and policy makers in helping to promote safer school climate for LGBT students[23] .

Recommendations for Teachers:
  • Stop bias-related comments when you hear them. Use bias-related comments as teachable moments to educate students about LBT terminology, appropriate language, and the importance of practicing respect for all members of the school community.
  • Include age- and subject- appropriate discussion of LGBT issues in your classroom curriculum.
  • Invite community organizations to come to your classroom and make presentations on LGBT issues.
  • Advocate for staff training on anit-LGBT bullying and prevention and on strategies for implementing age- and subject- specfic LGBT inclusive curricula.
  • Encourage colleagues to support adoption of LGBT inclusive curricula.
Recommendations for School Officials and Administrators:
  • Make age- and subject-appropriate LGBT issues a regular part of the curriculum.
  • Talk to textbook industry representatives about your desire to have curriculum that includes LGBT issues and people.
  • Encourage teachers to address LGBT issues within existing statewide curriculum standards and frameworks.
  • Arrange for staff training on age- and subject-appropriate LGBT inclusive curriculum implementation.
Recommendations for Policy Makers:
  • Require inclusion of the roles and contributions of LGBT people and history in curriculum.
  • Make clear to textbook representatives that curriculum should include the roles and contributions of LGBT people.
  • Develop and make available sample age- and subject-appropriate LGBT inclusive curriculum for school districts.


The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) asserts that whatever our own feelings about homosexuality are, they must be set aside in our role as professionals. We have a responsibility to understand the issues, advocate and intervene with all at-risk youth regardless of the factors that put those youth at-risk.

"NASP recognizes that students who identify as LGBTQ, or those who are gender nonconforming,may be at risk for experiencing harassment and discrimination, as well as risk factors for social,emotional, and academic problems related to psychosocial stressors (Bontempo & D’Augelli, 2002; D’Augelli, 2006; Ryan & Futterman 1998). A successful program to address these issues educates both those who discriminate and those who are discriminated against because of sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender nonconformity. School psychologists can participate in education and advocacy on a number of levels by promoting nondiscrimination policies; conducting school-wide inservice training; actively addressing discrimination and neglect of student needs; sharing information about human diversity and evidence-based practices to address student needs; and modeling ethical practice through accepting and affirming attitudes, language, and behaviors in daily interactions with all students and staff. In addition, school psychologists can provide intervention to individual students. Any program designed to address the needs of LGBTQ youth should also include efforts to educate and support parents and the community through collecting information about services and establishing involvement with other organizations committed to equal opportunity for education and mental health services for all youth. Schools can only be truly safe when every student, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression is assured of access to an education without fear of harassment, discrimination, or violence."

In 1993, APA and NASP passed a joint resolution encouraging school psychologists to promote the acceptance of safety of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender students in educational environments.


Bloomington-based Organizations for LGBTQ Youth and the Community:

Prism Youth Community:
Who we are: Founded in 2014. An inclusive space for teens celebrating all sexual orientations and gender identities and expressions!
What we do: Weekly meetings that provide opportunities for discussion, support, and friendship.
Upcoming events!
April 11th, Breaking the Silence party to celebrate teens’ participation in the GLSEN National Day of Silence, which protests the silencing and discrimination experienced by individuals in the LGBTQA community.

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Bloomington Pride:external image XV9EwBk4FKmEJXip4fAzSf1KLhnUGgIva2vysoQMX4hKZTK-J6wK7EqHgVsTgck91Y-NdnVscyWCvGIBm5CF74in45OqdgRupW3uUivjlyOXo2Z66RX8V5I-Sa3cqg
“The mission of Bloomington PRIDE: Through community-based events and services, Bloomington PRIDE celebrates queer arts, creates safe and inclusive spaces, and challenges stereotypes to enrich LGBTQA community culture.”

“For ten years, PRIDE has flourished as a film festival exploring a wide variety of issues and situations involving the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer communities. PRIDE programs a variety of live performance, lecture, public participation events, and films that express a wide range of viewpoints and feature many different personality types and situations, advocating community-wide attitudes of awareness, acceptance, and appreciation of diversity. The goals of the festival are to educate and strengthen the local community and celebrate artistic talent and achievement.

At its ten-year anniversary, the PRIDE Film Festival announced in January 2013 that it will incorporate into a free-standing nonprofit organization to expand programming and better serve the LGBT community. A volunteer Steering Committee made up of community members, Indiana University students and faculty, artists, film enthusiasts, and others plans the festival, led by two co-directors. The volunteer Board of Directors manages the administrative activities of the emerging nonprofit called Bloomington PRIDE.”

Bloomington Pride and Youth:

“The Youth Film Project is a program for youth ages 13-20 to showcase and explore their creativity by producing short films for the opportunity to win awards. Bloomington PRIDE reaches out to youth through local GSAs, churches, youth centers, schools, etc. and connects them with audiovisual equipment to write and direct their own films. Winners receive awards and their films are screened at the PRIDE Film Festival in January.”
Questions? Contact:

Indianapolis Resources:

__**Indiana Youth Group**__

Indiana Youth Group (IYG) provides safe places and confidential environments where self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youthare empowered through programs, support services, social and leadership opportunities and community service. IYG advocates on their behalf in schools, in community and through family support services. IYG's main function is to provide a safe place for youth along with programming and gay youth support services within its activity center. IYG also provides LGBT cultural sensitivity trainings to schools, universities, faith-based organizations, mental health facilities, and government organizations. IYG helps Gay/Straight Alliances (GSA's) within Indiana grow and helps students and schools start GSA's. Here is a list of programs IYG offers for LGBT youth.

**Indiana Equality**
The mission of Indiana Equality is to secure basic rights for Indiana's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered (LGBT) citizens. Organized in 2003, Indiana Equality has two primary objectives - amending Indiana's Civil Rights law to protect against discrimination based on either sexual orientation or gender identity, and ensuring that relationship protections for LGBT couples and families are not outlawed by an amendment to the State Constitution.
A coalition of LGBT, allied and progressive organizations from around the Hoosier state, Indiana Equality is also working with civil rights groups, LGBT organizations, and other partners to form regional steering committees across Indiana to represent their communities in this coordinated effort.

The Indy Rainbow Chamber is a Indiana Equality coalition partner.

**Indiana Youth Group**

Indiana Youth Group (IYG) provides safe places and confidential environments where self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth are empowered through programs, support services, social and leadership opportunities and community service. IYG advocates on their behalf in schools, in community and through family support services. IYG's main function is to provide a safe place for youth along with programming and gay youth support services within its activity center. IYG also provides LGBT cultural sensitivity trainings to schools, universities, faith-based organizations, mental health facilities, and government organizations. IYG helps Gay/Straight Alliances (GSA's) within Indiana grow and helps students and schools start GSA's. Here is a list of programs IYG offers for LGBT youth.



Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network

Safe Space Tool Kits

Resources for Students

Resources for Supporters

The Trevor Project

Know Your Rights

Lambda Legal LGBTQ Youth Resources Guide


Advocates for Youth: GLBTQ Issues Info for Parents

Ages and Stages: Gay and Lesbian Teens

Bullying Information for Parents

Kids Health: Sexual Attraction and Orientation

Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays

Sexual Orientation: Educator Resources

Stop Bullying Now

Supportive Families, Healthy Children: Helping Families with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Children

Understanding Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

Youth Violence: Electronic Aggression


Bullied: A Student, a School and a Case That Made History: Teaching materials for educators from Teaching Tolerance

Advocates for Youth: GLBTQ Resources for Professionals

American Psychological Association’s Healthy Gay Lesbian and Bisexual Students Project

Bullying Information for Educators and Other School Professionals

HIV/AIDS and Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

Gay-Straight Alliance Network: Transforming Schools

Just the Facts: A Primer for Principals, Educators, and School Personnel

National Alliance to End Homelessness: LGBT Homeless Youth

National Education Association: Bullying and School Safety Resources
Understanding Sexual Orientation and Gender IdentityYouth Violence: Electronic Aggress
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    Center for American Progress. (2010). Retrieved April 15, 2012 from
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    Boland, P. (2007). Vulnerability to violence among gay, lesbian and bisexual youth. Retrieved from
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    Glsen releases groundbreaking study of bias, bullying and homophobia in grades k-6. (2012). Retrieved from
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    Ready, set, respect!. (2012). (pp. 1-51). New York, NY: The Gay, Lesbian, & Straight Education Network. Retrieved from
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    Middle Level Lesson Plans. Retrieved from
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    Groundsparks. "Statistics on Bullying". Retrieved April 14, 2012 from
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    Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) & Lambda Legal. (2010). Getting down to basics: Tools to support LGBTQ youth in care.
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    A safe space in every school: About the campaign. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  10. ^ Ray, N. (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness. New York: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute and the National Coalition for the Homeless.
  11. ^ Berberet, H. (2006). Putting the pieces together for queer youth: a model of integrated assessment of need and program planning. Child Welfare Jounral, 85.
  12. ^ Remafedi, G. (1987). Homosexuality: the adolescent’s perspective. Pediatrics, 79, 326-330.
  13. ^ Savin-Williams, R. C. (1988). Theoretical perspectives for accounting for adolescent homosexuality. Journal of adolescent health care, 9, 95-104.
  14. ^ Mallon & Gerald, P. (1998). We don’t exactly get the welcome wagon: the experiences of gay and lesbian adolescents in the child welfare systems. Columbia University Press.
  15. ^ Robin, L., Brener, N.D., Donahue, S.F., Hack, T., Hale, K., & Goodenow, C. (2002). Associations between health risk behaviors and opposite-, same-, and both-sex sexual partners in representative samples of Vermont and Massachusetts high school students. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 156, 349-355.
  16. ^ Rotheram–Borus, M., Hunter, J., & Rosario, M. (1994). Suicidal behavior and gay-related stress among gay and bisexual male adolescents. Journal of adolescent research, 9, 498 – 508.
  17. ^ Remafedi, G., Farrow, J.A., & Deisher, R.W. (1991). Risk factors for attempted suicide in gay and bisexual youth. Pediatrics, 87, 869–875.
  18. ^ Garofalo, R., Wolf, R.C., Wissow, L.S., Woods, E.R., & Goodman, E. (1999). Sexual orientation and risk of suicide attempts among a representative sample of youth. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine,153, 487-493.
  19. ^ Paul, J., Catania, J., Pollack, L., Moskowitz, J., Canchola, J., Mills, T., Binson D., & Stall R. (2002). Suicide attempts among gay and bisexual men: lifetime prevalence and antecedents. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1338-1345.
  20. ^

    The Trevor Project Programs. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  21. ^

    It Gets Getter Project. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  22. ^


    Hobbs, T., Quasha, S., & Olaya, C. (2011). Meeting the needs of LGBT students through gay-straight alliances[PDF Document]. Retrieved from
  23. ^

    Russell, S. T., Kostroski, O., McGuire, J.K., Laub, C., & Manke, E. (2006). LGBT issues in the curriculum promotes school safety. (California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief No. 4). San Francisco, CA: California Safe Schools Coalition.